Ocular Nutrition

Healthy Diet Associated With Lower Risk Of Cataracts In Women.

Article from: Telecommunications Weekly

Women who eat foods rich in a variety of vitamins and minerals may have a lower risk of developing the most common type of cataract that occurs in the United States, according to a report in the June issue of Archives of Ophthalmology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Cataracts, which increase in prevalence with age, are the most important cause of blindness in the world; in the United States, cataract is the most prevalent cause of visual impairment due to eye disease according to background in the article. “There are limited studies published to date in which nutritional risk factors are evaluated concurrently with a comprehensive set of other lifestyle, ocular health and physical risk factors.”

Julie A. Mares, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison, and colleagues studied 1,808 women (age 55 to 86) who participated in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease study, residing in Iowa, Wisconsin and Oregon. The estimates of daily food and nutrition intake were made from previous responses to a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire used at the time as part of the Women’s Health Initiative study. Additionally, “adherence to the 1990 dietary guidelines for Americans and the 1992 food guide pyramid, reflecting dietary recommendations at the time women entered the Women’s Health Initiative, was estimated by the 1995 Healthy Eating Index scores adapted to this questionnaire.” Foods that contributed to higher diet scores were intakes at or above recommended levels for vegetables, fruits, grains, milk, meat (or beans, fish or eggs) and below recommended levels for fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium.

According to the study, nuclear cataract was common in the sample with 29 percent (454 women) reporting the eye disease with a lens in at least one eye. Additionally, 282 women (16 percent) had reported cataract extractions in either eye. Overall, 736 women (41 percent) had either nuclear cataracts evident from lens photographs or reported having a cataract extracted. “Results from this study indicate that healthy diets, which reflect adherence to the U.S. dietary guidelines at the time of entry in the Women’s Health Initiative study, are more strongly related to the lower occurrence of nuclear cataracts than any other modifiable risk factor or protective factor studied in this sample of women,” the study states.

“In conclusion, this study adds to the body of literature suggesting that healthy diets are associated with lower risk for cataract,” the authors write. “Lifestyle improvements that include healthy diets, smoking cessation, and avoiding obesity may substantively lower the need for and economic burden of cataract surgery in aging American women.”

Diet, Meds and Smoking Linked to Eye Disease Risks; Good nutrition staved off cataracts; some drugs, smoking increased vision problems, studies found.

Article from: Health Day News  

A healthy diet helps guard against cataracts, while certain medications raise the risks of this common cause of vision loss, two new studies suggest.

And a third study finds that smoking increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration, another disease that robs people of their sight.

https://i2.wp.com/evidencebasedliving.human.cornell.edu/files/2011/10/vitamins.jpg?w=604

The first study found that women who eat foods that contain high levels of a variety of vitamins and minerals may be less likely to develop nuclear cataract, which is the most common type of age-related cataract in the United States.

The study is published in the June issue of the Archives of Ophthalmology.

The researchers looked at 1,808 women in Iowa, Oregon and Wisconsin who took part in a study about age-related eye disease. Overall, 736 (41 percent) of the women had either nuclear cataracts evident from lens photographs or reported having undergone cataract extraction.

“Results from this study indicate that healthy diets, which reflect adherence to the U.S. dietary guidelines . . . are more strongly related to the lower occurrence of nuclear cataracts than any other modifiable risk factor or protective factor studied in this sample of women,” Julie A. Mares, of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and colleagues said in a news release from the journal.

The second study found that medications that increase sensitivity to the sun — including antidepressants, diuretics, antibiotics and the pain reliever naproxen sodium (commonly sold over-the-counter as Aleve) — increase the risk of age-related cataract.

Researchers followed-up with 4,926 participants over a 15-year period and concluded that an interaction between sun-sensitizing medications and sunlight (ultraviolet-B) exposure was associated with the development of cortical cataract.

“The medications [active ingredients] represent a broad range of chemical compounds, and the specific mechanism for the interaction is unclear,” Dr. Barbara E.K. Klein and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, said in the news release. Their report was released online in advance of publication in the August print issue of the Archives of Ophthalmology.

Because the lens of the eye develops from the same tissue layer as the skin, sun-sensitizing medications may affect the eyes as well as the skin, the researchers explained.

“Our results need to be evaluated in other populations, especially in view of the increasing frequency of sun-sensitizing medications,” they concluded. “If our findings are confirmed, it would be important to examine whether the effect is greater in those with higher levels of ambient sunlight (UV-B) exposure and if dose or duration of medication use is also important.”

The third study, also published online and in the August print issue of Archives of Ophthalmology, found that smoking and cholesterol levels affect the risk for early-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

AMD is uncommon before age 55 but the risk increases after that age, therefore most studies focus on AMD in middle-aged and older adults, according to background information in the report.

“To our knowledge, accurate estimates of prevalence of AMD among adults younger than 40 years are lacking. Such information is important for understanding the relationships of risk factors to AMD across the age spectrum and for identifying factors that might affect this disease earlier in life,” Dr. Ronald Klein, of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and colleagues said in the news release.

The study included 2,810 people, aged 21 to 84, who were assessed for the presence and severity of drusen. These yellow or white deposits in the retina are an early sign of AMD.

Overall, early AMD was detected in 3.4 percent of the participants,

with rates ranging from 2.4 percent among those aged 21 to 34 to 9.8 percent for those aged 65 and older. Besides age, additional risk factors associated with increased risk for AMD included being male, heavy smoking for a long period of time, and being hearing impaired. Elevated levels of HDL (“good”) cholesterol were associated with a lower risk for AMD, the study authors noted.

The findings “demonstrate that early AMD onset may occur in midlife. Some modifiable factors [smoking status and serum HDL cholesterol level] associated with AMD in older cohorts were associated with early AMD in this cohort of middle-aged adults,” the researchers concluded.

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Keep Your Eyes On Antioxidants.

Article from: Natural Life

Antioxidants may help prevent age-related cataracts, according to a new Australian study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

The Australian Blue Mountains Eye Study involved 3,654 people over 48 years old whose eyes and diet were studied over a period of ten years. Among other things, antioxidant use was studied, including beta carotene, zinc and vitamins A, C, and E.

People with the highest vitamin C intake from diet and supplements had a significantly reduced risk of cataracts after ten years compared with those who consumed lower amounts of vitamin C. Those with above-average intakes of combined antioxidants, including vitamins C and E, beta carotene and zinc, also had a reduced cataract risk compared with those who consumed fewer antioxidants. The main dietary sources of vitamin C were broccoli, spinach, cabbage, potatoes and citrus fruits.

Researcher Ava Grace Tan and her colleagues from the Department of Ophthalmology at the University of Sydney pointed out that the study participants generally ate plenty of fruits and vegetables and had “fairly healthy diet habits.” Around one-third of the population was taking vitamin supplements at the baseline examination, with a median vitamin C intake of 500 mg.

 

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